Baltic Journal of English Language, Culture and Literature (ISBN 1691-9971 (Print); ISSN 2501-0395 (Online)) is a multidisciplinary international scientific journal in general linguistics, applied linguistics, literature and culture.  It invites papers pertaining to the study of the English language, literature and culture, especially the papers which are of relevance in the Baltic region. The papers should be written in English.

General information

To facilitate the peer reviewing process, it is essential that the contributors adhere to the guidelines presented below. The papers which will not meet the requirements of these guidelines may be returned to the author(s) for revision or, possibly, rejected.

When submitting the paper for reviewing no information that identifies the author(s) should be included in the paper. The contributors are requested not to write: ‘We concluded that … (Ozols and Brown, 2011).’, but prefer ‘According to Ozols and Brown (2011), …’.

Format: Microsoft Word compatible with Microsoft Office 2010.

Length: preferably up to 15 pages

Submission: 2 electronic copies should be sent: one full copy and one blind copy (a copy without the information about the author):

Full copy: Surname_name_1 (add numbers to show the number of the version), for example the first version will be named,

e.g. Kalnina_Viola_1_full copy_March 1

If there are two authors then use ‘and’,

e.g. Kalnina_Viola_and_ Kalnins_Janis_1_full copy_March 1

Blind copy:

e.g. Kalnina_Viola_1_blind copy_March 1

or Kalnina_Viola_and_ Kalnins_Janis_1_blind copy_March 1

The paper should be sent as an email attachment to the Managing Editor Dr. Monta Farneste:  



Abstracts, titles and keywords and authors’ affiliations must be written in English; authors and references – in Roman script. Tables and figures are not just copied and pasted from Excel, but well configured within the content of an article.

See the published papers on the University of Latvia websites:

Title: centred, upper case, bold, 16 point (no underlining)


  • Name(s) Surname (centred, upper case, bold, 12 point)
  • Institution, Country (centred, sentence case, not bold, 11 point)

Abstract in English:

  • The heading Abstract (aligned left, followed by a full stop) is written on the same line as the first sentence.
  • The text should not be longer than 200 words (e.g. in 1-2 sentences summarising introduction, methods, results, conclusions).
  • 11 point, single spacing

Key words:

  • one additional space between lines
  • the heading in bold, sentence case, single spacing, 11 point, 5 to 7 words, e.g.

Key words: discourse analysis, letter writing, enquiry letters, ESP, tertiary level

The main text: see more in the Formatting section

Acknowledgements (e.g. for financial support)

References: 11 pt., single spacing, the title is aligned left (see more below: References)

Appendices (if any):

  • the title is aligned left, e.g.

APPENDIX 1 (12 pt.)

Questionnaire Sample (12 pt.)

  • The text below: 11 pt., single spacing


Brief information (1-2 sentences, 11 point, single spacing) about the author(s) at the end of the document: name surname in bold, scientific degree(s) and position in brackets, affiliation, country, research field(s), email address, e.g.

Monta Farneste (Dr. Paed., Assoc. Prof. in Applied Linguistics) is currently working at the University of Latvia. Her research interests include written communication, communicative grammar, language acquisition. Email:



Margins: 2.0 cm for top, bottom and right margins; 3.0 cm for left margin


  • Do not write any number next to the heading INTRODUCTION, CONCLUSIONS and REFERENCES
  • If you use subsections, provide numbers, e.g.




  • Align left, 12 point, no full stop after headings

Main Text

  • Times New Roman, 12 font, justified, single line spacing
  • Each paragraph is indented by 1 cm (use Tab or Format-Paragraph-Indentation-Special-First line-By: 1cm), except for the first line after the title and headings
  • Use no extra space between paragraphs
  • Do not use headers or footers (e.g. do not use footnotes)


  • Quotations are put in single inverted commas (‘…’). Double quotes are used only for quotes within quotes. Put a full stop after the quotation marks or brackets,

           e. g. ‘The study of “speaker meaning” is called pragmatics’ (Yule, 1996: 3).

  • The omitted text is shown by an ellipsis in square brackets, i.e. […].
  • Long quotations (3 and more lines) are displayed, i.e. indented from the left side, leaving one extra line before and after the quote.
  • Italics are used to highlight key information, to indicate terms or the titles of books (the titles of books are not put in inverted commas).

Figures and Tables

  • The captions of tables and figures are aligned left, single spaced, 11 pt. The captions of tables are written above, whereas the captions of figures are written below the data, e.g.

      Figure 1 Sample of an essay.

  • The text in the tables: 11 pt, single spaced
  • Tables and figures are separated from the main text by Enter.
  • The maximum number of tables and figures is five.


We reserve the right to omit photographs.

In-text citations

  • Use brackets for in-text citations (e.g. Brown, [1991] 2002: 5; White, 2005a: 8-10; White, 2005b: 8). Arrange them in chronological sequence.
  • If you quote, indicate page numbers.
  • If the authors’ names written in non-Latin script, they are transliterated in Latin characters, e.g. Barmina and Verhovskaya (2000).
  • Initials are used only when two authors have the same surname, e.g. M. Kalniņa and Š. Kalniņa in the text and in the in-text citation as follows (Kalniņa, M. and Kalniņa, Š., 2008).
  • Unknown publishing date is shown by (n. d.), e.g. (Brown, n. d.: 5).
  • Abbreviations are written after the full word in brackets at first mention.
  • Initials require spaces between elements, e.g. R. R. Jordan (ed.).
  • Long dictionary titles are abbreviated in in-text citations, the abbreviation is italicised, e.g. (LDELC, 1992). Also, full titles are italicised, e.g. (Oxford Dictionary, 2013: Online).
  • One work in another, e.g. (Brown, 1906, cited by White, 2004: 7).
  • To refer to an Internet source without the author and the title, Online should be written, e.g. (Online 1). In the reference list, such Internet sources are mentioned in order of appearance in the text: e.g. A number of research studies have been conducted into the effect of motivation on language acquisition (Online 1).
  • If there are more than three authors, all their surnames should appear when a reference to the publication is made for the first time in the text. Afterwards, only the first author should be mentioned followed by et al., for example (Waters et al., 1999). All the authors should be named in the reference list.


  • Include all the sources cited in the text and do not include any that have not been cited in the text. The author(s) are responsible for crediting all sources (e.g. the authors of the theories, the authors of any other text or data) used while writing the research paper. The sources must be cited both in the body of the paper (as in-text citations) and in the list of references. The quotations from other authors must be put in quotation marks.
  • Use single spacing, 11 pt. and a hanging indent (Format-Paragraph-Indentation-Special-Hanging) to arrange the items in the list, no space between lines.
  • Items in the references should be listed alphabetically: Latin characters (English, Latvian, then German and other). 
  • Foreign-language titles are translated in English in square brackets. They are also italicised.
  • The name of the translator is indicated in brackets, e.g. after the title the references (trans. C.Mauron) or after the quotation (Brown, 2002: 3; trans. mine).
  • Personal communications, manuscripts in preparation and other unpublished data are not cited in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text in parentheses.
  • Sources are indicated according to the following format:


Brown, B. (1994) Reading for research. Journal of Education, 1 (1): 21-4.

Brown, B. (2003) Research. London: University of London. Available from [Accessed on 2 ..........January 2019].

Celce-Murcia, M. (ed.), (2001) Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.

Coady, J. (1979) A psycholinguistic model of the ESL reader. In R. Mackay, B. Barkman and R. R. Jordan (eds.) Teaching ..........Reading Skills (pp. 219-223). London: Longman.

Dowman, J. and Shepheard, J. (2002) Teaching English as a Foreign Language. London: Hodder and Staughton.

Klingon, J. (2002) Starfleet command. Startrek News, Friday 3rd October: 27.

[LDELC] Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture (1992) Essex: Longman.


1. [Online 1] Available from [Accessed on 2 January 2019].

2. [Online 2]....


Trappe, T. and Tullis, G. (2005) Intelligent Business. Coursebook. Intermediate. Business English. Harlow: Pearson Education.


Updated in 2021